Kellogg

Kellogg Company (often referred to as Kellogg or Kellogg’s in its corporate logo, or even more formally as Kellogg’s of Battle Creek), with 2008 sales of nearly $13 billion, is the world’s leading producer of cereal and a leading producer of convenience foods, including cookies, crackers, Toaster pastries, cereal bars, fruit-flavored snacks, frozen waffles, and vegetarian foods. The company’s brands include Kellogg’s, Keebler, Pop-Tarts, Eggo, Cheez-It, Nutri-Grain, Rice Krispies, BearNaked, Morningstar Farms, Famous Amos, Special K, All-Bran, Frosted Mini-Wheats, Club and Kashi. Kellogg products are manufactured in 18 countries and marketed in more than 180 countries around the world.    Its global headquarters are in Battle Creek, Michigan, USA. Kellogg trades under the ticker symbol NYSE: K.

The Kellogg Company holds a Royal Warrant from HM Queen Elizabeth II and the Prince of Wales.
Kellogg’s was founded as the Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Company on February 19, 1906, by Will Keith Kellogg as an outgrowth of his work with his brother John Harvey Kellogg at the Battle Creek Sanitarium following practices based on the Seventh-day Adventist  Christian denomination. The company produced and marketed the hugely successful Kellogg’s Toasted Corn Flakes and was renamed the Kellogg Company in 1922.

In 1930, the Kellogg Company announced that most of its factories would shift towards 30 hour work weeks, from the usual 40. This practice remained until World War II, and continued briefly after the war, although some departments and factories remained locked into 30 hour work weeks until 1980.    From 1969 to 1977, Kellogg’s acquired various small businesses including Salad Foods, Fearn International, Mrs. Smith’s Pies, Eggo, and Pure Packed Foods;    however, it was later criticized for not diversifying further like General Mills and Quaker Oats were.

After underspending its competition in marketing and product development, Kellogg’s U.S. market share hit a low 36.7% in 1983. A prominent Wall Street  analyst called it “a fine company that’s past its prime” and the cereal market was being regarded as “mature.” Such comments invigorated Kellogg chairman William E. LaMothe to improve, which primarily involved approaching the demographic of 80 million baby boomers  rather than marketing children-oriented cereals. In emphasizing cereal’s convenience and nutritional value, Kellogg helped persuade U.S. consumers age 25 to 49 to eat, 26% more cereal than people that age ate five years prior. The U.S. ready-to-eat cereal market, worth $3.7 billion at retail in 1983, totaled $5.4 billion by 1988, and had expanded three times as fast as the average grocery category. Kellogg’s also introduced new products including Crispix, Raisin Squares, and Nutri-Grain Biscuits and reached out internationally with Just Right aimed at Australians and Genmai Flakes for Japan. During this time, the company maintained success over its top competitors: General Mills, who largely marketed children’s cereals, and Post, who had difficulty in the adult cereal market.

In March 2001, Kellogg made its largest acquisition, the Keebler Company. Over the years it has also gone on to acquire Morningstar Farms and Kashi divisions or subsidiaries. Kellogg also owns the Bear Naked, Natural Touch, Cheez-It, Murray, Austin, Famous Amos, Gardenburger (acquired 2007) and Plantation brands.
Corporate governance

Current members of Kellogg Company’s board of directors include: James M. Jenness, chairman; David Mackay; Dr. Benjamin S. Carson, Sr.; John T. Dillon; Gordon Gund; Dorothy A. Johnson; Donald R. Knauss; Ann McLaughlin Korologos; Rogelio M. Rebolledo; Sterling K. Speirn; Robert A. Steele and Dr. John L. Zabriskie.

On January 24, 2005, the former CEO (since April 1999) and chairman of the board of directors (since April 2000), Carlos Gutierrez became U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the second term of former President George W. Bush. Kellogg’s board of directors named James M. Jenness as chairman and CEO to replace Gutierrez.

On October 23, 2006, Kellogg’s announced that president and chief operating officer David Mackay would become the chief executive officer, effective December 31, 2006. Jenness will continue to serve as chairman of the Board of Directors.

In June 2007, Kellogg announced that by the end of 2008 it would stop advertising to children under twelve those cereals and snacks that do not meet specific nutrient guidelines.
Products

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Cereal
Advertisement, 1910s

A list of cereal products produced by Kelloggs, with available varieties.

* All-Bran: All-Bran Original, All-Bran Bran Buds, All-Bran Bran Flakes (UK), All-Bran Extra Fiber, All-Bran Guardian (Canada)
* Apple Jacks
* Bran Buds
* Bran Flakes
* Choco Krispis (Latin America)
* Chocos (India,Europe)
* Coco Pops (Europe, Australia)
* Coco Pops Coco Rocks
* Coco Pops Mega Munchers
* Coco Pops Moons and Stars
* Cocoa Hoots
* Cocoa Krispies
* Corn Flakes
* Complete Wheat Bran Flakes/Bran Flakes
* Corn Pops
* Country Store
* Crunch: Caramel Nut Crunch, Cran-Vanilla Crunch, Toasted Honey Crunch
* Crunchy Nut Cornflakes
* Cruncheroos (current only available through food service sales and not retail)
* Disney cereals: Disney Hunny B’s Honey-Graham, Disney Mickey’s Magix, Disney Mud & Bugs, Pirates of the Caribbean, Disney Princess Cereal
* Eggo
* Froot Loops: Froot Loops, Froot Loops 1/3 Less Sugar, Marshmallow Froot Loops
* Frosted Flakes (Frosties outside of the US/Canada): Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes, Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes 1/3 Less Sugar, Tony’s Cinnamon Krunchers
* Frosted Mini-Wheats (known in the UK as Toppas until the early 1990s, when the name was changed to Frosted Wheats. The name Toppas is still applied to this product in other parts of Europe, as in Germany and Austria)
* Fruit Harvest: Fruit Harvest Apple Cinnamon, Fruit Harvest Peach Strawberry, Fruit Harvest Strawberry Blueberry
* Fruit ‘n Fibre (not available in US; not related to the Post cereal of the same name sold in the US)
* Genmai Flakes (Japan)
* Guardian (Australia/NZ), Canada
* Honey Loops
* Honey Smacks (US)/Smacks (other markets)
* Just Right: Just Right Original, Just Right Fruit & Nut, Just Right Just Grains, Just Right Tropical, Just Right Berry & Apple, Just Right Crunchy Blends – Cranberry, Almond & Sultana (Australia/NZ), Just Right Crunchy Blends – Apple, Date & Saltana (Australia/NZ)
* Krave (UK)
* Komplete (Australia)
* Low-Fat Granola: Low-Fat Granola, Low-Fat Granola with Raisins
* Mini Swirlz
* Mini-Wheats: Mini-Wheats Frosted Original, Mini-Wheats Frosted Bite Size, Mini-Wheats Frosted Maple & Brown Sugar, Mini-Wheats Raisin, Mini-Wheats Strawberry, Mini-Wheats Vanilla Creme, Mini-Wheats Strawberry Delight, Mini-Wheats Blackcurrent
* Mueslix: Mueslix with Raisins, Dates & Almonds
* Nutri-Grain
* Nut Feast
* Oat Bran: Cracklin’ Oat Bran
* Optivita
* Product 19
* Raisin Bran/Sultana Bran: Raisin Bran, Raisin Bran Crunch, Sultana Bran (Australia/NZ), Sultana Bran Crunch (Australia/NZ)
* Raisin Wheats
* Rice Krispies/Rice Bubbles: Rice Krispies, Rice Krispies Treats, Frosted Rice Krispies, Cocoa Rice Krispies, Rice Bubbles, LCMs, Rice Crispies Multi-Grain Shapes
* Ricicles: Like Rice Krispies, but with the addition of a frosted sugar coating.
* Scooby-Doo cereal: Cinnamon Marshmallow Scooby-Doo! Cereal
* Smart Start: Smart Start, Smart Start Soy Protein Cereal
* Smorz
* Special K: Special K, Special K low carb lifestyle, Special K Red Berries, Special K Vanilla Almond, Special K Honey & Almond (Australia), Special K Forest Berries (Australia), Special K Light Muesli Mixed Berries & Apple (Australia/NZ), Special K Light Muesli Peach & Mango flavour (Australia/NZ), Special K Dark Chocolate (Belgium), Special K Milk Chocolate (Belgium), Special K Sustain (UK)
* Spider-Man cereal: Spider-Man Spidey-Berry
* SpongeBob SquarePants cereal
* Start UK
* Strawberry Pops (South Africa)
* Sustain: Sustain, Sustain Selection
* Variety
* Vector (Canada only)
* Yeast bites with honey
* ZimZ!, mini cinamon-flavoured spirals, sold only in Germany and Austria

2010 Cereal Recall

On June 25, the company voluntarily began to recall about 28 million boxes of Apple Jacks, Corn Pops, Froot Loops and Honey Smacks because of an unusual smell and flavor from the packages’ liners that could make people ill. Kellogg’s said about 20 people complained about the cereals, including five who reported nausea and vomiting. Consumers reported the cereal smelled or tasted waxy or like metal or soap. Company spokeswoman J. Adaire Putnam said some described it as tasting stale. However, no serious health problems have been reported.

The suspected chemical that caused the illnesses was “2-methylnaphthalene,” used in the cereal packaging process. Little is known about 2-methylnaphthalene’s impact on human health as the Food and Drug Administration has no scientific data on its impact on humans, and the Environmental Protection Agency also does not have health and safety data. This is despite the EPA having sought information on it from the chemical industry for 16 years. 2-methylnaphthalene is a component of crude oil, and is “structurally related to naphthalene, an ingredient in mothballs and toilet-deodorant blocks” that the EPA considers a possible human carcinogen.

Kellogg’s offered consumers refunds in the meantime.                  Only products with the letters “KN” following the use-by date are included in the recall. The products were distributed throughout the U.S. and began arriving in stores in late March 2010. Products in Canada were not affected.
Discontinued cereals and foods

Kellogg provides an online list of discontinued products.

* Banana Bubbles

A banana-flavoured variation of Rice Krispies. First appeared in the UK in 1995, but discontinued shortly thereafter.

* Bart Simpson’s No ProblemO’s

Sold in the UK for a limited period

* Bigg Mixx cereal
* C-3PO’s cereal

Introduced in 1984 and inspired by the multi-lingual droid from Star Wars, the cereal called itself a “a New (crunchy) Force at Breakfast” and was composed of “twin rings phased together for two crunches in every double-O”. In other words, they were shaped like the number 8.

* Choco Corn Flakes

A chocolate version of Corn Flakes. First sold in the UK in 1998, but discontinued a few years later.

* Cinnamon Crunch Crispix
* Cinnamon Mini-Buns
* Concentrate
* Complete Oat Bran Flakes
* Corn Soya cereal
* Double Dip Crunch
* Frosted Krispies
* Golden Crackles
* Golden Oatmeal Crunch (later revised to Golden Crunch)
* Kenmei Rice Bran cereal
* Kream Krunch
* Krumbles cereal

Manufactured approximately from the 1920s to the 1950s; based on shreds of wheat but different from shredded wheat in texture. Unlike the latter, it tended to remain crisp in milk. In the Chicago area, Krumbles was available into the late 1960s. It was also high in fiber, although that attribute was not in vogue at the time.

* Marshmallow Krispies (later revised to Fruity Marshmallow Krispies)
* OJ’s cereal (1985–1986)
* OKs cereal (early 1960s)

Oat-based cereal physically resembling the competing brand Cheerios, with half the OKs shaped like letter O’s and the other half shaped like K’s, but didn’t taste like Cheerios. OKs originally featured a Scottish bagpiper on the box; this was replaced by the more familiar Yogi Bear.

* Pep

Best remembered as the sponsor of the Superman radio serial.

* Pokémon Cereal
* Powerpuff Girls Cereal
* Puffa Puffa Rice (late 1960s-early 1970s)
* Raisins Rice and Rye
* Razzle Dazzle Rice Krispies
* Stars/All-Stars cereal

Kellogg’s International

* Alaska Milk Corporation – Philippines
* Den Bosch – Netherlands
* Valls – Spain
* Bremen – Germany
* Kelloggs Manchester – UK
* Kelloggs Wrexham – UK
* Portable Foods Manufacturing Wrexham – UK
* Portable Foods Manufacturing Livingston – Scotland, UK
* Battle Creek, Michigan – USA
* Seoul – South Korea
* Shinjuku, Tokyo – Japan
* Bangkok – Thailand
* Mumbai – India
* Pagewood – Australia
* Rosny-sous-Bois – France
* London, Ontario – Canada
* Querétaro – Mexico
* Maracay, Aragua – Venezuela
* United Bakers – Russia
* São Paulo – Brazil
* Swords, Dublin – Ireland
* Kellogg Europe Trading, Dublin – Ireland

Mascots

Licensed brands have been omitted since the corresponding mascots would be obvious (e.g. Spider-Man is the mascot for Spider-Man Spidey-Berry).

* Cocoa Krispies cereal (Known as Choco Krispis in Latin America, Choco Krispies in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, Chocos in India; and Coco Pops in UK and Europe): Jose (monkey), Coco (monkey), Melvin (elephant), Snagglepuss (Hanna-Barbera character), Ogg (caveman), Tusk (elephant) & Snap, Crackle and Pop.
* Corn Flakes cereal: Cornelius (rooster)
* Frosted Flakes (known as Frosties outside the US/Canada, Zucaritas in Latin America and Sucrilhos in Brazil) cereal: Tony the Tiger
* Froot Loops cereal: Toucan Sam
* Honey Smacks (US)/Smacks (other markets) cereal: Dig ‘Em Frog
* Raisin Bran cereal: Sunny the Sun
* Rice Krispies (known as Rice Bubbles in Australia) cereal: Snap, Crackle and Pop
* Ricicles (UK Only) cereal: Captain Rik
* Apple Jacks cereal: CinnaMon and Bad Apple
* Honey Loops cereal: Loopy (bumblebee)
* Keebler Cookies and Crackers : Ernie & the Elves

Motorsports

Kellogg’s made its first foray into auto racing in 1991–92, when the company sponsored the #41 Chevrolets fielded by Larry Hedrick Motorsports in the NASCAR Winston Cup Series and driven by Phil Parsons, Dave Marcis, Greg Sacks and Hut Stricklin. But they gained greater prominence for their sponsorship of two time NASCAR Winston Cup Champion Terry Labonte from 1993 (at Billy Hagan Racing) until his retirement in 2006, and Hendrick Motorsports from 1994 until the end of 2006, initially with Labonte with both their Corn Flakes and Frosted Flakes brands, including Labonte’s second NASCAR Championship (1996), and his second win in a major (the 2003 Southern 500). After Labonte’s retirement, the sponsor stayed when Hendrick with new driver Kyle Busch. The company has consistently reduced its sponsorship, where since 2007 it shares only the hood or the sides of the cars with co-primary sponsor Carquest Auto Parts now driven by Mark Martin. Kellogg’s will move to Roush Fenway Racing with driver Carl Edwards in 2010.
Merchandising

Kelloggs has used some merchandising for their products. Kelloggs once released Mission Nutrition, a PC Game that came free with special packs of cereal. It played in a similar fashion as Donkey Kong Country; you could play as Tony the Tiger, Coco the Monkey, or Snap, Crackle, and Pop. Kelloggs has also released “Talking” games. The two current versions are Talking Tony and Talking Sam. In these games, a user uses a microphone to play games and create voice commands for their computer. In Talking Tony, Tony the Tiger, one of Kellogg’s most famous mascots, would be the main and only character in the game. In Talking Sam, Toucan Sam, another famous mascot, would be in the game instead. Some toy cars have the Kelloggs logo on them, and occasionally their mascots.
Advertising

On June 3, 2010, Kellogg’s was found to be making unsubstantiated and misleading claims in advertising their cereal products by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC).

Kellogg’s responded by stating We stand behind the validity of our product claims and research, so we agreed to an order that covers those claims. We believe that the revisions to the existing consent agreement satisfied any remaining concerns.

The FTC had previously found fault with Kellogg’s claims that Frosted Mini-Wheats cereal improved kids’ attentiveness by nearly 20%.

The Children’s Advertising Review Unit of the Council of Better Business Bureaus has also suggested that the language on Kellogg Pop-Tarts packages saying the pastries are “Made with Real Fruit” should be taken off the products.

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